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Scientists have identified a protein which controls the spread of melanoma from the skin to other organs. Labelled MIDKINE, the protein plays a key role in promoting metastasis, the spread of cancer from one area of the body to another.
Working with mice genetically modified to develop human skin cancers, scientists found that the MIDKINE protein is secreted by melanoma tumours and travels to different parts of the body to kickstart cancer formation elsewhere.
More Queenslanders die from thin melanomas than from thick melanomas, a study has shown. The findings challenge a widely held belief that most melanoma deaths result from thick lesions.
The incidence of melanoma has been rising steadily in fair-skinned populations around the world, with most of the increase owing to a greater number of lesions being diagnosed. There is a widespread perception that most deaths from melanoma are a result of thick lesions – that is, tumours bigger than four millimetres. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence to support this assumption. Australian researchers subsequently undertook a study using data from Queensland, which has the highest rate of melanoma in the world.
New findings suggest that pembrolizumab used in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting causes anti-tumour activity in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Continue reading “Pembrolizumab Promising in Treatment of Head and Neck Skin Cancer”
Data shows that adding afatinib to standard chemoradiation therapy does not improve disease-free survival among patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
Researchers from the Yale Cancer Centre have presented the findings of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase three trial of afatinib as adjuvant therapy after chemoradiation in primary unresected, high- or intermediate-risk, squamous cell cancer of the head and neck patients.
This week we would like to provide some guidance on the management of the melanoma case we discussed last week. Please see below a short video on the definitive excision and repair of the melanoma, performed by Dr Colin Armstrong. We hope you find the video helpful, and we look forward to your feedback and your own case submissions.
In this video, Associate Professor Giuseppe Argenziano discusses a study by the International Dermoscopy Society that sheds light on melanoma under the fingernail. He explains the causes of nail pigmentation and what criteria are used for diagnosing such irregularities as melanoma.
A breakthrough has been made in the early detection of melanoma, using a compound called fluorinated benzamine. The development could lead to a much faster and more accurate diagnosis of melanoma. Continue reading “Research to Detect Melanoma Faster and More Accurately”
This week we have another interesting case from Dr Colin Armstrong. Please describe what you see here, and outline what you would do next.
Researchers have pinpointed a sugar modification in cells that spurs the spread of skin cancer. The study reveals that FUT8 – an enzyme that transfers the sugar fucose onto proteins – is a driver of melanoma growth. When silenced, it suppresses the onset of cancer and the dissemination of tumours in laboratory mice.
Scientists have long thought that the process in which carbohydrates attach to cells – known as glycosylation – plays an important role in the progression of melanoma; however, no comprehensive analyses of clinical samples exist to support this assertion. Continue reading “Cellular Sweet Spot Found in Skin-Cancer Battle”
A phase two study of the antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) glembatumumab vedotin (GV) has resulted in promising outcomes for patients with refractory advanced melanoma.
The single-arm, open-label, phase two study was conducted by the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute’s Melanoma Centre. It assessed the efficacy and safety of GV monotherapy in patients with measurable, unresectable stage three or four melanoma who had received cytotoxic chemotherapy, checkpoint inhibitor and, if the tumour had a BRAF V600 mutation, BRAF/MEK inhibitor.